Defend the Defenders’ Latest Statistics: Vietnam Holds 251 Prisoners of Conscience

Defend the Defenders, Press Release, January 3, 2022

For immediate release

According to Defend the Defenders’ statistics, as of December 31, 2021, Vietnam’s authoritarian regime is holding at least 251 prisoners of conscience in prisons or other forms of detention. The number does not include Le Anh Hung (m) who is forcibly committed in mental hospitals without judicial process. The list includes Australian citizen Chau Van Kham (m) who has been found guilty of terrorism under Article 113 of Vietnam’s Criminal Code.

As many as 23 of the prisoners of conscience identified by Defend the Defenders are women human rights defenders (WHRDs).

In total, 181 people, or 72.2% of the list, are from the Kinh ethnic majority. The second-largest ethnic grouping on the list is Montagnards, a loose set of religious and ethnic minorities who live in the mountains of the Central Highlands. They account for 62 people or 24.6% of those on the list. There are eight prisoners of conscience from the Hmong ethnic minority and two on the list are Khmer Krom.

Bloggers, lawyers, unionists, land rights activists, political dissidents, and followers of non-registered minority religions have been arrested and detained for peacefully exercising their internationally and constitutionally protected rights, principally the right to freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly, and religion or belief. The list does not include individuals who have engaged in or advocated violence.

Vietnam still holds 35 activists in pre-trial detention, six of them were arrested in 2018-2019, nine in 2020, and the remaining 20 were detained in 2021. Among them is prominent human rights defender Nguyen Thuy Hanh, who has been charged with “conducting anti-state propaganda” under Article 117 of the Criminal Code, and independent Mai Phan Loi, who is probed for tax evasion.

There are 216 who have been convicted – mostly of political crimes under Articles 79, 87, and 88 of the1999 Penal Code or Article 109, 117, and 331 in the 2015 Criminal Code.

The total number includes:

– 47 activists convicted or charged with subversion (Article 79 of 1999 Penal Code or Article 109 in the 2015 Criminal Code);

– 61 activists convicted or charged with “conducting anti-state propaganda” (Article 88 of the 1999 Penal Code or Article 117 of the 2015 Criminal Code);

– 56 people from ethnic minorities were convicted of undermining the national unity policy (Article 87 of the 1999 Penal Code or Article 116 of the 2015 Criminal Code);

– 28 activists were convicted or charged with “abusing democratic freedom” (Article 258 of the 1999 Penal Code or Article 331 of the 2015 Criminal Code);

– Nine activists were convicted of “disruption of security” under Article 118 of the 2015 Criminal Code;

– Ten individuals were convicted of or charged with “disrupting public orders” (under Article 245 of the 1999 Penal Code or Article 318 of the 2015 Criminal Code) for their peaceful activities. Seven of them were imprisoned for participating or being suspected of planning to participate in the mass demonstrations in mid-June 2018 and their aftermath;

– Three activists Chau Van Kham (male, Vietnamese Australian), Nguyen Van Vien (m), and Tran Van Quyen (m) were convicted of “terrorism” under Article 113 of the 2015 Criminal Code.

– The charges for 13 individuals are unknown, including three Montagnards followers of the Ha Mon sect arrested on March 19 last year.

Vietnam is among the world’s biggest prisons for journalists and Facebookers, holding 43 of them in police custody, according to the Paris-based Reporters Without Borders (RSF)’s report released on December 16. The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) has also listed Vietnam among the global biggest prisons for journalists with 23 journalists being imprisoned.

Background

In late January 2021, the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) conducted its 13th National Congress to elect its new leadership for the next five years. The week-lasting congress re-elected many conservative figures such as incumbent General Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong, Minister of Public Security General To Lam, and former police general Pham Minh Chinh to the 18-member Politburo, the most powerful body of the regime. In April-May, the authoritarian regime carried out the administrative formation for the next five years including the presidency and the government as well as the general election for the rubber-stamp legislative body called National Assembly and People’s Councils at provincial, district, and communal levels. Later in July, the National Assembly formally approved the presidency, the government and other state agencies already decided by the party while the People’s Councils at the provincial, district, and communal levels approve leadership of the respective local agencies.

During the preparation of the party’s events and after the formation of the new leadership at the national and local levels, the regime tightened social orders, intensifying the crackdown on local dissent and bloggers which was started in late 2015.

It seems that the Vietnamese authoritarian regime continues its repression without fearing being punished by the western world after the European Parliament adopted the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement and the EU-Vietnam Investment Protection Agreement in March last year, just two months after Hanoi sent thousands of riot policemen to Dong Tam commune to launch a blood attack on the local land petitioners in which local spiritual leader Le Dinh Kinh was shot to death and many of his relatives, as well as many other villagers, were beaten and detained. In addition, the US administration of President Donald Trump who paid no attention to human rights issues resigned after the loss of the billionaires in the presidential election in November 2020 while newly-elected President Joe Biden has little time for international issues but to focus on the domestic problems. Moreover, the administration of President Biden attaches importance to a closer partnership with Vietnam’s authoritarian regime due to its geopolitical value in the fight between the US and China is the leading global position.

The Covid-19 pandemic which started in early 2020, continues to spread worldwide in 2021, causing the international community to focus on dealing with the deadly disease and pay less attention to Vietnam’s human rights violations.

Given the international situation and the Covid-19 infection at home, Vietnam’s authoritarian regime feels free to violate the basic human rights of the local people to prevent the formation of local opposition and ensure its absolute power.

Arrest in 2021

Between January 1 and December 31, Vietnam arrested 27 activists and bloggers (see details in Appendix 1). As many as 12 activists were charged with “conducting anti-state propaganda” and among them are prominent human rights defender Nguyen Thuy Hanh and bloggers Le Van Dung and Bui Van Thuan. The number also includes blogger Le Trong Hung and Tran Quoc Khanh who announced their intention to take part in the parliament election on May 21 as independent candidates but were arrested a few months before the polls took place. Handicap blogger Dinh Van Hai was also arrested and charged with this accusation.

As many as 13 others were arrested on the allegation of “abusing democratic freedom” under Article 331 of the Criminal Code. Among them is well-known blogger Truong Chau Huu Danh who has a number of articles regarding the legal miscarriage of Ho Duy Hai who was unfairly sentenced to death in the double murder case in Cau Voi post office one decade ago.

In many cases, including the cases of Pham Doan Trang (f), Chung Hoang Chuong (m), Nguyen Van Nghiem (m), Le Van Dung (m), Dinh Thi Thu Thuy (f), Do Nam Trung (m), Dinh Van Hai (m), Le Trong Hung (m), Le Chi Thanh (m), and Tran Quoc Khanh (m), etc., the UN Working Group for Arbitrary Detention has issued its resolutions saying their arrests were arbitrary and urged Vietnam’s authoritarian regime to free them immediately and unconditionally.

Convictions in 2021

In 2021, Vietnam’s authoritarian regime convicted 31 activists and bloggers (see details in Appendix 2). Twenty-two were found guilty of “conducting anti-state propaganda” and sentenced to between five and 15 years in prison. Among them are a prominent political blogger and world-recognized human rights advocate Pham Doan Trang (f), President of of the unregistered professional group Independent Journalists Association of Vietnam (IJAVN) Dr. Pham Chi Dung (m), and his deputy Nguyen Tuong Thuy (m), three recipients of Vietnam Human Rights Award 2021 named Can Thi Theu (f) and her two sons Trinh Ba Phuong (m) and Trinh Ba Tu (m). In the first instance-hearing in January, Dr. Dung was given 15 years in prison- the toughest imprisonment for the charge of “conducting anti-state propaganda” so far while his deputy was given 11 years in prison. In mid-December, Ms. Trang was sentenced to nine years in prison while Mr. Phuong was given ten years in prison and Mr. Tu and his mother Theu were sentenced to eights years in prison and three years of probation each.

The second large group of eight bloggers was convicted of “abusing democratic freedom” under Article 331 of the Criminal Code and sentenced to between two and five years in prison. Among them were members of Báo Sạch (Clean Newspaper) led by Mr. Truong Chau Huu Danh (m).

In all the cases, there are serious violations of human rights as well as the Criminal Procedure Code in all steps from detention to prosecution. The defendants were held incommunicado for months and permitted to meet with their lawyers in the short time before their trial. All the trials were extremely short in which the defendants’ relatives were not allowed to be present in the courtrooms while foreign diplomats were observing the hearings in adjacent rooms via TV screens. In some cases, including the trials against land rights activists and human rights defenders Can Thi Theu and her sons, their relatives were detained and held in a local police station on the trial day. In all cases, the judges ignored the defense of the defendants and their lawyers.

Mistreatment in prison

Vietnam’s Ministry of Public Security continues its policy to keep prisoners, especially prisoners of conscience, under hard living conditions in a bid to punish them for their non-violent activities but harmful for the communist regime and break their mental strength. Along with sending prisoners of conscience to prisons far from their families, it allows authorities in the prisons and the temporary detention centers to apply other psychological measures to make the life of jailed activists harder, such as denying them their rights to regular meetings with their families and receiving additional food and medicines from their relatives, placing them in solitary cells or isolated areas, or forcing them to work hard without proper protective equipment. It also puts added psychological and financial trauma on the family members.

Due to the Covid-19 outbreak across Vietnam, the families of prisoners of conscience have not been allowed to conduct prison visits nor send foodstuff for them but send money so jailed activists can purchase additional food and stuff at prisons’ canteens at prices much higher than the market prices while the goods’ quality is under question. Most of the convicted prisoners of conscience are allowed to make a ten-minute call to their families every month.

The family of brave human rights defenders and democracy campaigners Can Thi Theu was alarmed that she has been held in a tiny cell without a fan during the hot summer in the temporary detention center operated by the Hoa Binh province’s Police Department. It is worth noting that Mr. Dao Quang Thuc was treated the same way by the same detention center and he died in 2019 shortly after being transferred to the Gia Trung prison camp in the Central Highlands province of Gia Lai.

Also due to hard-living conditions and lack of proper medical treatment, Mr. Huynh Huu Dat, who served his 13-year imprisonment for subversion, has passed away in Xuan Loc Prison camp after months of fighting against rectal cancer and cirrhosis.

Many former prisoners of conscience reported that most prisoners of conscience from ethnic minorities have no family visits and their lives in prisons are very hard since they rely on prison’s supply only.

The family of prisoner of conscience Trinh Ba Phuong said according to the minute of his trial on December 15, he had been tortured by four police officers during pre-trial detention in the Temporary detention center No.1 under the authority of the Hanoi Police Department. The perpetrators reportedly beat him at his genital part and other parts of his body.

Along with persecuting prisoners of conscience, authorities in some localities also harass their families. After arresting former prisoner of conscience Can Thi Theu and her two sons Trinh Ba Phuong and Trinh Ba Tu on the charge of “conducting anti-state propaganda” in late June, police in Hanoi and Hoa Binh continuously intimidate her family, summoning her husband Trinh Ba Khiem who is also a former prisoner of conscience and Mr. Phuong’s wife Do Thi Thu to police stations for interrogating about the detainees’ activities.

Many former prisoners of conscience reported that most of the prisoners of conscience from ethnic minorities have no family visits and their lives in prisons are very hard since they rely on prison’s supply only.

Release from prison in 2021

Between January 1 and December 31, 39 prisoners of conscience were released or expected to complete their imprisonments (see details in Appendix No. 3). Defend the Defenders has no information which would confirm the release of most of them. However, Defend the Defenders still excludes their names from its list of prisoners of conscience.

In October, after months of medical treatment outside prison, prisoner of conscience Ngo Hao was allowed to travel to Finland where he lives in exile. The authoritarian regime suspended his 15-year imprisonment last year and the 73-year-old political prisoner was permitted to return home for treating several severe diseases.

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The term “prisoner of conscience” (POC) was coined by Peter Benenson in the 1960s. It refers to any individual “imprisoned for his/her political, religious or conscientiously held beliefs, ethnic origin, sex, color, language, national or social origin, economic status, birth, sexual orientation or another status who have not used violence or advocated violence or hatred.”

Defend the Defenders is Vietnam’s independent non-profit organization working to promote human and civil rights in the Southeast Asian nation. It has a network of dozens of human rights defenders across the nation who report human rights abuse in their areas.

Vietnam, January 3, 2022

Director: Vu Quoc Ngu

Email: [email protected]

Website: vietnamhumanrightsdefenders.net

Appendix 1: List of arrested activists and bloggers in 2021

Appendix 2: List of activists and bloggers convicted in 2021

Appendix 3: List of Prisoners of Conscience Released in 2021

Appendix 4: List of Prisoners of Conscience as of December 31, 2020

 

Appendix 1: List of Activists and bloggers Arrested in 2021

 

No. Name DOB Residence Day of arrest Charge (s)
1 Phan Bùi Bảo Thy 1971 Quảng Trị 10/O2/2021  Article 331
2 Lê Anh Dũng 1965 Quảng Trị 10/O2/2021 331
3 Trần Quốc Khánh 1960 Ninh Bình 10/O3/2021 117
4 Nguyễn Duy Hướng 1987 Nghệ An 22/3/2021 117
5 Lê Trọng Hùng 1979 Hanoi 27/3/2021 117
6 Nguyễn Hoài Nam 1973 HCM City 2-Apr-21 331
7 Nguyễn Thuý Hạnh (f) 1963 Hanoi 7-Apr-21 117
8 Nguyễn Thanh Nhã 1980   20-Apr-21 331
9 Đoàn Kiên Giang 1985   20-Apr-21 331
10 Nguyễn Phước Trung Bảo 1982   20-Apr-21 331
11 Lê Thế Thắng 1982 Hà Nội   331
12 Nguyễn Bảo Tiên 1986 Phú Yên 5-May-21 117
13 Trần Ngọc Sơn 1965 Vĩnh Phúc 20/5/2021 331
14 Bạch Văn Hiền 1987 Quảng Ngãi June 30, 1021 331
15 Phùng Thanh Tuyến 1983 Quảng Ngãi June 30, 1021 331
16 Lê Trung Thu 1980 Quảng Ngãi June 30, 1021 331
17 Lê Văn Dũng 1970 Hà Nội June 30, 1021 117
18 Đỗ Nam Trung 1981 Hà Nội 6-Jul-21 117
19 Mai Phan Lợi 1971 Hà Nội 2-Jul-21 200
20 Bùi Văn Thuận 1981 Thanh Hoa 29-Aug-21 117
21 Trần Hoàng Huấn 1988 Tiền Giang 10-Aug-21 117
22 Nguyễn Duy Linh 1976 Bến Tre 14-Sep-21 117
23 Y Wo nie 1970 Dak Lak 20-Sep-21 331
24 Phùng Thị Nga (f) 1981 Vĩnh Phúc 4-Oct-21 331
25 Võ Hoàng Thơ 1985 Cần Thơ 6-Oct-21 331
26 Đinh Văn Hải 1974 Lâm Đồng 7-Oct-21 117
27 Nguyễn Trí Doãn 1979 Khánh Hoà Jan-21 117

 

Appendix 2: List of activists and bloggers convicted in 2021

 

No. Name DOB Residence Day of arrest Charge (s) Trial date Sentence
Jail (year) Probation (years)
1 Lê Hữu Minh Tuấn 1989 Khánh Hoà 12-Jun-20 Art. 117 5-Jan-21 11 3
2 Nguyễn Tường Thuỵ 1950 Hanoi 23-May-20 117 5-Jan-21 11 3
3 Phạm Chí Dũng 1966 HCM City 21-Nov-19 117 5-Jan-21 15 3
4 Nguyễn Văn Nhanh 1992 Đồng Nai   155 7-Jan-21 1  
5 Đinh Thị Thu Thuỷ 1982 Hậu Giang 18-Apr-20 117 20-Jan-21 7  
6 Nguyễn Thị Cẩm Thuý (f) 1976 Khánh Hoà 24-Jun-20 117 30-Mar-21 9 3
7 Ngô Thị Hà Phương (f) 1996 Khánh Hoà   117 30-Mar-21 7  
8 Lê Viết Hòa 1962 Khánh Hoà   117 30-Mar-21 5  
9 Vũ Tiến Chi 1966 Lâm Đồng 24-Jun-20 117 30-Mar-21 10 3
10 Lê Văn Hải 1967 Bình Định O9/2020 331 31-Mar-21 4  
11 Lê Thị Bình (f) 1976 Cần Thơ 22-Dec-20 331 22-Apr-21 2  
12 Trần Thị Tuyết Diệu (f) 1988 Phú Yên   117 23-Apr-21 8  
13 Trịnh Bá Tư 1989 Hanoi 24-Jun-21 117 5-May-21 8 3
14 Cấn Thị Thêu (f) 1962 Hanoi 24-Jun-21 117 5-May-21 8 3
15 Đặng Hoàng Minh 1993 Hậu Giang   117 2-Jun-21 7 2
16 Cao Văn Dũng 1968 Quảng Ngãi 27-Nov-20 117 9-Jun-21 9 3
17 Pham Thanh 1952 Hanoi   117 9-Jul-21 5.5 5
18 Trần Hoàng Minh 1990 Hanoi 1-Sep-20 331 20-Jul-21 5  
19 Nguyễn Văn Lâm 1970 Nghệ An   117 20-Jul-21 9 3
20 Trần Quốc Khánh 1960 Ninh Bình   117 Octboer 28, 2021 6.5 2
21 Nguyễn Trí Doãn 1979 Khánh Hoà 1-Jan-21 117 15-Nov-21 7 3
22 Trương Châu Hữu Danh 1982   16/12/2020 331 Octber 28, 2021 4  
23 Đoàn Kiên Giang 1985   20-Apr-21 331 Octber 28, 2021 3  
24 Lê Thế Thắng 1982     331 Octber 28, 2021 3  
25 Nguyễn Thanh Nhã 1980   20-Apr-21 331 Octber 28, 2021 2  
26 Nguyễn Phước Trung Bảo 1982   20-Apr-21 331 Octber 28, 2021 2  
27 Pham Doan Trang (f) 1978 Hanoi 6-Oct-20 88 14-Dec-21 9  
28 Trinh Ba phuong   Hanoi 24-Jun-20 117 15-Dec-21 10 5
29 Nguyen Thi Tam (f) 1972 Hanoi 24-Jun-20 117 15-Dec-21 6 3
30 Do Nam Trung 1981 Nam Định 7-Jun-21 117 16-Dec-21 10 4
31 Lê Trọng Hùng 1979 Hanoi 27-Mar-21 117 31-Dec-21 5 5
  Total           209 47

 

Appendix 3: List of released prisoners of conscience
No. Name DOB Day of arrest Charge(s) Sentence (years) Day of Release
1 Nguyễn Quang Tuy   O9/2/2019 330 2 Sep-20
2 Hà Văn Nam 1981 5-Mar-19 318 2.5 Feb 4: 7-month sentence reduction
3 Bùi Hiếu Võ 1962 O3/2017 88 4.5 N/A, expected on Feb 17
4 Đoàn Thị Hồng (f) 1983 O2/9/2018 118 2.5 years 9-Mar-21
5 Bùi Mạnh Tiến   16/10/2019 318 1.25 N/A, expected in January
6 Nguyễn Tuấn Quân 1984 5-Mar-19 318 2 N/A, expected on March 5
7 Vũ Văn Hà 1990 5-Mar-19 318 2 N/A, expected on March 5
8 Ngô Quang Hùng 1993 5-Mar-19 318 2 N/A, expected on March 5
9 Trương Thị Thu Hằng (f) 1984 16/O2/2017 88 4 N/A, expected on Feb 16
10 Ma Phung Ngoc Phu (f) 1992 10-Apr-20 331 0.75 N/A, expected on January 10
11 Nguyễn Hữu Mỹ 1973   331 1 N/A
12 Chung Hoàng Chương 1977 1-Jan-20 331 1.5 10/6/21
13 Nguyễn Thị Huệ (f) 1968 2-Mar-19 331 2.5 N/A, expected on September 2, 2021
14 Huỳnh Thị Kim Quyên (f) 1979 30/O4/2017 88 4 N/A, expected on April 30, 2021
15 Nguyễn Ngọc Quy 1992 30/O4/2017 88 4 N/A, expected on April 30, 2021
16 Bùi Mạnh Đồng 1978 O9/2018 331 2.5 N/A, expected in September 2021
17 Nguyễn Hoàng Nam 1982 26/6/2017 245 4 N/A, expected on Deceember 26, 2021
18 Ngô Văn Đạt 1989 1O/6/2018 318 3 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
19 Nguyễn Chương 1995 1O/6/2018 318 3 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
20 Ngô Đức Thuận 2000 1O/6/2018 318 3 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
21 Nguyễn Văn Tuấn 1988 1O/6/2018 318 3 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
22 Huỳnh Anh Khoa 1982 13-Jun-20 331 1.25 13-Sep-21
23 Trần Đình Sang 1980 O9/4/2019 330 2 N/A, expected on April 9, 2021
24 Lê Văn Khiển 1990 5-Mar-19 318 2.5 N/A, expected on September 5, 2021
25 Nguyễn Tấn An 1992 30/O4/2017 88 5 Nov-21
26 Phan Thanh Tường 1987 28/O2/2012 79 (109) 10 2020
27 Đỗ Thị Hồng (f) 1957 14/O2/2012 79 (109) 13 2020
28 Nguyễn Đình Khue 1978 25/4/2019 118 2.5 N/A, expected on October 25, 2021
29 Ngô Xuân Thành 1970 25/4/2019 118 2.5 N/A, expected on October 25, 2021
30 Nguyễn Tấn Vũ 2000 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
31 Ho Van Tam 1989 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
32 Nguyen Van Hung 1995 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
33 Nguyễn Văn Hiếu 1998 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
34 Trần Văn Xi 1995 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
35 Phạm Văn Sang 2002 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
36 Đỗ Văn Ngọc 1996 1O/6/2018 318 3.5 N/A, expected on December 10, 2021
37 Nguyễn Đăng Thương 1957 13-Jun-20 331 1.5 N/A, expected on December 13, 2021
38 Ngô Hào 1948 Feb-13 79 15 October 2021, allowed to live in exile in Finland
       
Appendix 4: List of prisoners of conscience as of December 31, 2021
No. Names DoB Arrest date Charge Sentence (years) Detention facilities
1 Nguyễn Quang Khải 1969 20-Oct-20 337 Pre-trial detention Đồng Nai temporary detention facility
2 Phan Thị Thanh Hồng (f) 1969 21-Jun-20 318 Pre-trial detention HCM City’s temporary detention center
3 Phạm Đình Quý 1981 25-Sep-20 156 Pre-trial detention Dak Lak temporary detention center
4 Hoàng Minh Tuấn 1980 25-Sep-20 156 Pre-trial detention Dak Lak temporary detention center
5 Y Pum Nie 1964 10/O4/2018 116 Pre-trial detention HCM City’s temporary detention center
6 Nguyễn Bá Mạnh 1987 20/3/2019 288 Pre-trial detention Bac Ninh province’s temporary detention center
7 Võ Hoàng Thơ 1985 6-Oct-21 331 Pre-trial detention Can Thơ City’s temporary detention center
8 Phùng Thị Nga (f) 1981 4-Oct-21 331 Pre-trial detention Vinh Phuc province’s temporary detention center
9 Y Wo Nie 1970 20-Sep-21 331 Pre-trial detention Dak Lak province’s temporary detention center
10 Bạch Văn Hiền 1987 June 30, 1021 331 Pre-trial detention Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
11 Phùng Thanh Tuyến 1983 June 30, 1021 331 Pre-trial detention Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
12 Lê Trung Thu 1980 June 30, 1021 331 Pre-trial detention Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
13 Trần Ngọc Sơn 1965 20/5/2021 331 Pre-trial detention Vinh Phuc temporary detention center
14 Nguyễn Hoài Nam 1973 2-Apr-21 331 Pre-trial detention HCM City’s temporary detention center
15 Phan Bùi Bảo Thy 1971 10/O2/2021 331 Pre-trial detention Quang Trị province temporary detention center
16 Lê Anh Dũng 1965 10/O2/2021 331 Pre-trial detention Quang Trị province temporary detention center
17 Lê Văn Hải 1966 18-Sep-20 331 Pre-trial detention Binh Dinh province temporary detention center
18 Trịnh Viết Bảng 1959 13/5/2019 331 Pre-trial detention Bac Ninh province’s temporary detention center
19 Nguyễn Duy Sơn 1981 O8/5/2018 331 Pre-trial detention Thanh Hoa province’s temporary detention center
20 Nguyễn Văn Trường 1976 O9/2/2018 331 Pre-trial detention Thai Nguyen province’s temporary detention center
21 Trần Văn Tú 1992   331 Pre-trial detention Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
22 Đinh Văn Hải 1974 7-Oct-21 117 Pre-trial detention Lam Dong province’s temporary detention center
23 Nguyễn Duy Linh 1976 14-Sep-21 117 Pre-trial detention Ben Tre province’s temporary detention center
24 Bui Van Thuan 1981 29-Aug-21 117 Pre-trial detention Thanh Hoa province’s temporary detention center
25 Trần Hoàng Huấn 1988 10-Aug-21 117 Pre-trial detention Tien Giang province’s temporary detention center
26 Lê Văn Dũng 1970 30-Jun-21 117 Pre-trial detention Hanoi temporary detention center
27 Nguyễn Bảo Tiên 1986 5-May-21 117 Pre-trial detention Phu Yen temporary detention center
28 Nguyễn Thuý Hạnh (f) 1963 7-Apr-21 117 Pre-trial detention Hanoi temporary detention center
29 Nguyễn Duy Hướng 1987 22-Mar-21 117 Pre-trial detention Nghe An province temporary detention center
30 Đinh Quang Phú 1973 9-Jan-20 117 Pre-trial detention Dak Nong temporary detention center
31 Nguyễn Văn Quang 1987 12/O6/2018 117 Pre-trial detention Thanh Hoa province’s temporary detention center
32 Mai Phan Lợi 1971 2-Jul-21 200 Pre-trial detention Hanoi temporary detention center
33 1964 19-Mar-20 Unknown Pre-trial detention Gia Lai province’s temporary detention center
34 Lup 1972 19-Mar-20 Unknown Pre-trial detention Gia Lai province’s temporary detention center
35 Kưnh 1992 19-Mar-20 Unknown Pre-trial detention Gia Lai province’s temporary detention center
36 Nguyễn Văn Nhanh 1992   155 1 Dong Nai province’s temporary detention center
37 Lê Đình Công 1964 9-Jan-20 123 death No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
38 Lê Đình Chức 1980 9-Jan-20 123 death No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
39 Bùi Viết Hiếu 1943 9-Jan-20 123 16 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
40 Nguyễn Văn Tuyến 1974 9-Jan-20 123 12 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
41 Lê Đình Doanh 1988 9-Jan-20 123 life impr. No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
42 Nguyễn Quốc Tiến 1980 9-Jan-20 123 13 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
43 Nguyễn Văn Quân 1980 9-Jan-20 330 5 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
44 Lê Đình Uy 1993 9-Jan-20 330 5 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
45 Lê Đình Quang 1984 9-Jan-20 330 5 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
46 Bùi Thị Nối (f) 1958 9-Jan-20 330 6 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
47 Bùi Văn Tiến 1979 9-Jan-20 330 5 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
48 Nguyễn Văn Duệ 1962 9-Jan-20 330 3 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
49 Bùi Văn Tuấn 1991 9-Jan-20 330 3 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
50 Trịnh Văn Hải 1988 9-Jan-20 330 3 No. 2 temporary detention center, Hanoi
51 Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Hạnh (f) 1976 O3/9/2018 118 8 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
52 Hồ Đình Cương N/A O4/9/2018 118 4.5 years Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai province
53 Ngô Văn Dũng 1969 O4/9/2018 118 5 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
54 Lê Quý Lộc 1976 11/O6/2018 118 5 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
55 Hoàng Thị Thu Vang (f) 1966 O3/9/2018 118 7 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
56 Đỗ Thế Hoá 1968 O2/9/2018 118 5 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
57 Trần Thanh Phương 1975 O2/9/2018 118 3.5 years An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
58 Đoàn Viết Hoan 1984 25/4/2019 118 3 Dong Nai province’s temporary detention center
59 Võ Thường Trung 1977 25/4/2019 118 3 Dong Nai province’s temporary detention center
60 Trương Hữu Lộc 1963 11/O6/2018 118 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
61 Chau Van Kham 1949 13/1/2019 113 12 Thu Duc prison camp in Binh Thuan province
62 Nguyễn Văn Viễn 1971 13/1/2019 113 11 HCM City’s temporary detention center
63 Trần Văn Quyến 1999 23/1/2019 113 10 HCM City’s temporary detention center
64 Lê Trọng Hùng 1979 27-Mar-21 117 5 Hanoi temporary detention center
65 Nguyễn Thị Tâm (f) 1972 24-Jun-20 117 6 Hanoi temporary detention center
66 Trịnh Bá Phương 1985 24-Jun-20 117 10 Hanoi temporary detention center
67 Đỗ Nam Trung 1981 6-Jul-21 117 10 Nam Dinh province’s temporary detention center
68 Phạm Đoan Trang (f) 1978 6-Oct-20 117 9 Hanoi temporary detention center
69 Trần Quốc Khánh 1960 3/10/21 117 6.5 Ninh Binh province’s temporary detention center
70 Nguyễn Trí Gioãn 1979 O1/2021 117 7 Khanh Hoa temporary detention center
71 Nguyễn Văn Lâm 1970 12-Jul-05 117 9 Nghi Kim temporary detention center, Nghe An province
72 Pham Chi Thanh 1952 21-May-20 117 5.5 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
73 Cao Văn Dũng 1968 27-Nov-20 117 9 Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
74 Đặng Hoàng Minh 1968 15-Jun-05 117 7 Hậu Giang province’s temporary detention center
75 Trịnh Bá Tư 1989 24-Jun-20 117 8 Hoa Binh temporary detention center
76 Cấn Thị Thêu (f) 1962 24-Jun-20 117 8 Hoa Binh temporary detention center
77 Tran Thi Tuyet Dieu (f) 1988 21-Aug-20 117 8 Phu Yen temporary detention center
78 Vũ Tiến Chi 1966 24-Jun-20 117 10 Lam Dong province’s temporary detention center
79 Nguyễn Thị Cẩm Thuý (f) 1976 24-Jun-20 117 9 Khanh Hoa temporary detention center
80 Ngô Thị Hà Phương  (f) 1996   117 7 Khanh Hoa temporary detention center
81 Lê Viết Hòa 1962   117 5 Khanh Hoa temporary detention center
82 Dinh Thi Thu Thuy (f) 1982 20-Apr-20 117 7 Hau Giang temporary detention center
83 Le Huu Minh Tuan 1989 12-Jun-20 117 11 Chi Hoa temporary detention center, HCM City
84 Nguyen Tuong Thuy 1950 23-May-20 117 11 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
85 Phạm Chí Dũng 1966 21-Nov-19 117 15 HCM City’s temporary detention center
86 Nguyễn Trung Lĩnh 1967 27/5/2018 117 12 Hanoi temporary detention center
87 Nguyễn Quốc Đức Vượng 1991 23-Sep-19 117 8 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
88 Nguyễn Văn Nghiêm 1963 5-Nov-19 117 6 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
89 Phan Công Hải 1996 19-Nov-19 117 5 Nghe An province’s temporary detention center
90 Lê Văn Phương 1990 26-Oct-18 117 7 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
91 Trần Thanh Giang 1971 23/4/2019 117 8 An Giang province’s temporary detention center
92 Huỳnh Minh Tâm 1978 26/1/2019 117 9 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
93 Huỳnh Thị Tố Nga (f) 1983 28/1/2019 117 5 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
94 Nguyễn Chí Vững 1981 23/4/2019 117 6 Bac Lieu province’s temporary detention center
95 Phạm Văn Điệp 1965 29/6/2019 117 9 Thanh Hoa province’s temporary detention center
96 Nguyễn Năng Tĩnh 1976 29/5/2019 117 11 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa province
97 Nguyễn Văn Phước 1979 10/12/2O18 117 5 An Giang province’s temporary detention center
98 Nguyễn Ngọc Ánh 1980 30/O8/2018 117 6 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai (K2)
99 Huỳnh Trương Ca 1971 O4/9/2018 117 5.5 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai (K2)
100 Dương Thị Lanh (f) 1983 28/1/2019 117 8 Dac Nong province’s temporary detention center
101 Huỳnh Đắc Tuý 1976 22/2/2019 117 6 Quang Ngai province’s temporary detention center
102 Nguyễn Văn Công Em 1971 28/2/2019 117 5 Ben Tre province’s temporary detention center
103 Vũ Thị Dung (f) 1965 13/10/2018 117 6 Trại giam An Phước (Bình Dương)
104 Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Sương (f) 1968 13/10/2018 117 5 Trại giam An Phước (Bình Dương)
105 Nguyễn Đình Thành 1991 O8/6/2018 117 7 Binh Duong province’s temporary detention center
106 Nguyễn Viết Dũng 1976 27/9/2017 88 6 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
107 Trần Hoàng Phúc 1994 29-Jun-17 88 6 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
108 Vũ Quang Thuận 1966 O2/3/2017 88 8 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
109 Nguyễn Văn Điển 1980 O2/3/2017 88 6.5 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
110 Phan Kim Khánh 1983 21/3/2017 88 6 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
111 Nguyễn Văn Hoá 1995 11/O1/2017 88 7 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
112 Pham Long Dai 1996 16/O2/2017 88 6 Unknown
113 Doan Thi Bich Thuy (f) 1972 16/O2/2017 88 5 Unknown
114 Tran Duc Thach 1952 23-Apr-20 109 12 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
115 Tạ Tấn Lộc 1975 16/O2/2017 79 14 Unknown
116 Nguyen Quang Thanh 1983 16/O2/2017 79 14 Unknown
117 Nguyễn Văn Nghĩa 1977 16/O2/2017 79 12 Unknown
118 Nguyen Van Tuan 1984 16/O2/2017 79 12 Unknown
119 Trần Long Phi 1996 O7/7/2018 109 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
120 Huỳnh Đức Thanh Bình 1996 O7/7/2018 109 10 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai
121 Từ Công Nghĩa 1993 O5/11/2016 79 (109) 10 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
122 Phan Trung 1976 O5/11/2016 79 (109) 8 Bo La Prison camp in Binh Duong
123 Nguyễn Quốc Hoàn 1977 O5/11/2016 79 (109) 13 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai
124 Nguyễn Văn Đức Độ 1975 O5/11/2016 79 (109) 11 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai
125 Lưu Văn Vịnh 1967 O5/11/2016 79 (109) 15 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
126 Lê Đình Lượng 1965 24/7/2017 79 (109) 20 Trại giam Ba Sao (Hà Nam)
127 Nguyễn Văn Túc 1974 O1/9/2017 79 (109) 13 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
128 Nguyễn Trung Trực 1963 O4/8/2017 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
129 Nguyễn Trung Tôn 1971 30/7/2017 79 (109) 12 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
130 Trương Minh Đức 1960 30/7/2017 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
131 Phạm Văn Trội 1972 30/7/2017 79 (109) 7 Ba Sao Prison camp in Ha Nam
132 Nguyễn Bắc Truyển 1968 30/7/2017 79 (109) 11 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
133 Trần Thị Xuân (f) 1976 17/10/2017 79 (109) 9 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
134 Trần Huỳnh Duy Thức 1966 24/5/2009 79 (109) 16 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
135 Lê Thanh Tùng 1968 15/12/2015 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
136 Trần Anh Kim 1949 21/9/2015 79 (109) 13 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
137 Hồ Đức Hoà 1974 O2/8/2011 79 (109) 13 Trại giam Ba Sao (Hà Nam)
138 Phạm Thị Phượng (f) 1945 O4/2010 79 (109) 11 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
139 Phan Văn Thu 1948 O5/2/2012 79 (109) Life imprisonment An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
140 Lê Xuân Phúc 1951 O5/2/2012 79 (109) 15 Trại giam Xuyên Mộc, Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
141 Le Trong Cu 1966 O5/2/2012 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
142 Lê Duy Lộc 1956 15/O2/2012 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
143 Nguyen Ky Lac 1956 O6/2/2012 79 (109) 12 Xuan Loc Prison camp in Dong Nai
144 Tạ Khu 1947 O6/2/2012 79 (109) 16 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
145 Trần Phi Dũng 1984 10/O2/2012 79 (109) 13 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
146 Trần Quân 1966 10/O2/2012 79 (109) 13 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
147 Vo Ngoc Cu 1951 O6/2/2012 79 (109) 16 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
148 Vo Thanh Le 1955 O5/2/2012 79 (109) 16 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
149 Võ Tiết 1952 O5/2/2012 79 (109) 16 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
150 Vương Tân Sơn 1953 10/O2/2012 79 (109) 17 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
151 Doan Van Cu 1962 10/O2/2012 79 (109) 14 Prison camp No. 5 in Thanh Hoa
152 Lê Đức Đồng 1983 O5/2/2012 79 (109) 12 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
153 Lương Nhật Quang 1987 O3/2012 79 (109) 12 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
154 Nguyen Dinh 1968 Không rõ 79 (109) 14 Unknown
155 Nguyễn Thái Bình 1986 23/11/2012 79 (109) 12 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
156 Phan Thanh Y 1948 23/11/2012 79 (109) 12 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
157 Tu Thien Luong 1950 23/11/2012 79 (109) 16 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
158 Hà Hải Ninh 1988 10-Jul-05 109 Unknown Quang Ninh province’s temporary detention center
159 Sung A Sinh 1983   109 life impr. Dien Bien province
160 Lau A Lenh 1970   109 life impr. Dien Bien province
161 Trương Châu Hữu Danh 1982 16/12/2020 331 4  
162 Đoàn Kiên Giang 1985 20-Apr-21 331 3  
163 Lê Thế Thắng 1982   331 3  
164 Nguyễn Thanh Nhã 1980 20-Apr-21 331 2  
165 Nguyễn Phước Trung Bảo 1982 20-Apr-21 331 2  
166 Trần Hoàng Minh   1-Sep-20 331 5 Hanoi temporary detention center
167 Lê Thị Bình (f) 1976 22/12/2020 331 2 Can Tho City’s temporary detention center
168 Quách Duy 1982 18-Sep-20 331 4.5 Chi Hoa temporary detention center, HCM City
169 Le Van Hai 1967 1-Sep-20 331 4 Binh Dinh province temporary detention center
170 Đỗ Công Đương 1964 24/1/2018 318, 331 9 Prison camp No. 6 in Nghe An
171 Hoàng Đức Bình 1983 15/5/2017 330, 331 14 An Diem Prison camp in Quang Nam
172 Nguyễn Văn Thiên 1961 Không rõ 258 4 Unknown
173 Lê Văn Sinh 1965 O2/2019 331 5 Ninh Binh province’s temporary detention center
174 Pastor Y Yich 1969 13/5/2013 46, 49 and 87 12 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
175 A Gyun 1980 Unknown 87 6 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
176 A Tik 1952 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
177 Dinh Ku 1972 Unknown 87 7 Unknown
178 A Thin 1979 Unknown 87 6 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
179 A Ngo 1998 Unknown 87 7 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
180 A Yen 1984 Unknown 87 9 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
181 Y Hriam Kpa 1976 30/7/2015 87 6.5 Dak Tan Prison camp in Dak Lak
182 Y Lao Mlo 1987 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
183 A Quyn 1973 Unknown 87 9.5 Unknown
184 Pastor A Byo 1967 Unknown 87 4 Unknown
185 Y Drim Nie 1979 29/1O/2012 87 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
186 Rah Lan Hip 1981 Unknown 116 7 Unknown
187 A Tach (aka Ba Hloi) 1959 Unknown 87 11 Unknown
188 Y Yem Hwing 1972 29/1O/2012 87 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
189 A Chi 1983 Unknown 87 7 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
190 A Hung 1980 Unknown 87 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
191 A Ly 1979 Unknown 87 7 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
192 Run 1971 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
193 A Yum (aka Balk) 1940 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
194  Buyk/Byuk 1945 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
195 Buyk 1963 Unknown 87 9 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
196 John “Chinh” 1952 Unknown 87 10 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
197 A Hyum, (aka Ba Kol) 1940 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
198 Siu Thai (aka Ama Thuong) 1978 Unknown 87 10 Unknown
199 Kpuil Le N/A Unknown 87 8 Unknown
200 Kpuil Mel N/A Unknown 87 9 Unknown
201 Kpa Sinh 1959 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
202 Rah Lan Blom 1976 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
203 Rah Lan Mlih 1966 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
204 Ro Mah Klit 1946 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
205 Siu Brom 1967 Unknown 87 10 Unknown
206 Siu Hlom 1967 Unknown 87 12 Unknown
207 Ro Mah Pro 1964 Unknown 87 8 Unknown
208 Rmah Hlach (aka Ama Blut) 1968 Unknown 87 23 Unknown
209 Siu Koch (aka Ama Lien) 1985 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
210 Noh 1959 Unknown 87 12 Unknown
211 Ro Lan Ju (aka Ama Suit) 1968 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
212 Siu Ben (aka Ama Yon)   Unknown 87 12 Unknown
213 Kpa Binh 1976 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
214 Rmah Pro 1964 Unknown 87 Unknown Unknown
215 Nhi (aka Ba Tiem) 1958 Unknown 87 10 Unknown
216 Pinh 1967 Unknown 87 9 Unknown
217 Roh 1962 Unknown 87 10 Unknown
218 Y Bhom Kdoh 1965 O8/10/2012 87 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
219 Y Chon Nie 1968 29/1O/2012 87 8 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
220 Ksor Ruk 1975 30/1O/2018 87 10 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
221 Romah Daih   O8/7/2005 87 10 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
222 Kpuih Bop   O8/7/2005 87 9 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
223 Thao A Vang 1986 Unknown 87 20 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
224 Vang A Phu 1977 Unknown 87 20 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
225 Vang A Phu 1988 Unknown 87 20 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
226 Vang A De 1990 Unknown 87 20 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
227 Thao A Vang 1962 Unknown 87 18 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
228 Phang A Vang 1988 Unknown 87 18 Na Tau Prison camp in Dien Bien
229 Bùi Văn Trung 1964 26/6/2017 245 6 An Phuoc Prison camp in Binh Duong
230 Bùi Văn Thắm 1987 26/6/2017 245, 247 6 Xuyen Moc Prison camop in Ba Ria-Vung Tau
231 Đặng Thị Huệ (f) 1981 16/10/2019 318 3.5 An Khanh Prison camp (Ninh Binh)
232 Nguyễn Quỳnh Phong 1985 5-Mar-19 318 3 Bac Lieu province’s temporary detention center
233 Bùi Thanh Tú 1990 1O/6/2018 318 5 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
234 Nguyễn Văn Tiến 1998 1O/6/2018 318 4.5 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
235 Nguyễn Văn Thuận 1999 1O/6/2018 318 4 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
236 Nguyễn Ngọc Bình 1992 1O/6/2018 318 4 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
237 Nguyen Van Tan 1990 1O/6/2018 318 4 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
238 Đỗ Văn Thắng 1999 1O/6/2018 318 4 Binh Thuan province’s temporary detention center
239 Huỳnh Thục Vy (f) 1985 1-Dec-21 276 2.75 HCM City’s temporary detention center
240 Nguyễn Văn Oai 1981 19/1/2017 257, 304 5 Gia Trung Prison camp in Gia Lai
241 Trần Minh Lợi 1968 Unknown 290 6 Unknown
242 Nguyễn Văn Hữu 1957 Unknown Unknown 6 Unknown
243 Dieu Bre 1969 Unknown Unknown 4.5 Unknown
244 A Gron 1943 Unknown Unknown 8 Unknown
245 Dinh Ngo 1987 Unknown Unknown 7.5 Unknown
246 Pastor Runh 1979 Unknown Unknown 10 Unknown
247 Pastor Y Muk Nie 1968 Unknown Unknown 9 Unknown
248 Pastor Siu Nheo 1955 Unknown Unknown 10 Unknown
249 Y Ty Ksor 1989 Unknown Unknown 14 Unknown
250 Siu Bler 1962 Unknown Unknown 17 Unknown
251 Y Kur Bdap 1971 Unknown Unknown 17 Unknown
 
(sources: Defend the Defenders, 2021)
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